What are the Rare Earths?

Rare-earth metals or elements typically include scandium (Sc-21), yttrium (Y-39) and the lanthanides — lanthanum (La-57), cerium (Ce-58), praseodymium (Pr-59), neodymium (Nd-60), promethium (Pm-61), samarium (Sm-62), europium (Eu-63), gadolinium (Gd-64), terbium (Tb-65), dysprosium (Dy-66), holmium (Ho-67), erbium (Er-68), thulium (Tm-69), ytterbium (Yb-70), and lutetium (Lu-71).

When alloyed with other metals, the rare-earths can provide enhanced magnetic, strength and high temperature and other properties. For example, high-strength magnets made from neodymium-iron--boron have been used in a variety of products, including electric motors and hybrid cars components.

The Elements

Scandium

Sc
symbol

    Scandium

  • Atomic Weight: 44.955 g/mol
  • Density: 2.958 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d14s2
  • Melting Point: 1814 K, 1541 °C, 2806 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3109 K, 2836 °C, 5136 °F

21 
number

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Yttrium

Y
symbol

    Yttrium

  • Atomic Weight: 88.905 g/mol
  • Density: 4.472 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d15s2
  • Melting Point: 1799 K, 1526 °C, 2779 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3609 K, 3336 °C, 6037 °F

39
number

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Lanthanum

La
symbol

    Lanthanum

  • Atomic Weight: 138.905 g/mol
  • Density: 6.162 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 5d16s2
  • Melting Point: 1193 K, 920 °C, 1688 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3737 K, 3464 °C, 6267 °F

57
number

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Cerium

Ce
symbol

    Cerium

  • Atomic Weight: 140.116 g/mol
  • Density: 6.770 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f26s2
  • Melting Point: 1068 K, 795 °C, 1463 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3716 K, 3443 °C, 6229 °F

58
number

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Praseodymium

Pr
symbol

    Praseodymium

  • Atomic Weight: 140.907 g/mol
  • Density: 6.77 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f36s2
  • Melting Point: 1208 K, 935 °C, 1715 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3793 K, 3520 °C, 6368 °F

59
number

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Neodymium

Nd
symbol

    Neodymium

  • Atomic Weight: 144.242 g/mol
  • Density: 7.01 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f46s2
  • Melting Point: 1297 K, 1024 °C, 1875 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3347 K, 3074 °C, 5565 °F

60
number

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Pitchblende

Pm
symbol

    Promethium

  • Atomic Weight: 145 g/mol
  • Density: 7.26 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f56s2
  • Melting Point: 1315 K, 1042 °C, 1908 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3273 K, 3000 °C, 5432 °F

61
number

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Samarium

Sm
symbol

    Samarium

  • Atomic Weight: 150.36 g/mol
  • Density: 7.52 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f66s2
  • Melting Point: 1345 K, 1072 °C, 1962 °F
  • Boiling Point: 2067 K, 1794 °C, 3261 °F

62
number

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Europium

Eu
symbol

    Europium

  • Atomic Weight: 151.964 g/mol
  • Density: 5.264 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f76s2
  • Melting Point: 1099 K, 826 °C, 1519 °F
  • Boiling Point: 1802 K, 1529 °C, 2784 °F

63
number

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Gadolinium

Gd
symbol

    Gadolinium

  • Atomic Weight: 157.25 g/mol
  • Density: 7.90 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f75d26s2
  • Melting Point: 1585 K, 1312 °C, 2394 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3546 K, 3273 °C, 5923 °F

64
number

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Terbium

Tb
symbol

    Terbium

  • Atomic Weight: 158.925 g/mol
  • Density: 8.23 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f96s2
  • Melting Point: 1629 K, 1356 °C, 2473 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3503 K, 3230 °C, 5846 °F

65
number

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Dysprosium

Dy
symbol

    Dysprosium

  • Atomic Weight: 162.500 g/mol
  • Density: 8.540 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f106s2
  • Melting Point: 1680 K, 1407 °C, 2565 °F
  • Boiling Point: 2840 K, 2562 °C, 4653 °F

66
number

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Holmium

Ho
symbol

    Holmium

  • Atomic Weight: 164.930 g/mol
  • Density: 8.79 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f116s2
  • Melting Point: 1734 K, 1461 °C, 2662 °F
  • Boiling Point: 2993 K, 2720 °C, 4928 °F

67
number

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Erbium

Er
symbol

    Erbium

  • Atomic Weight: 167.259 g/mol
  • Density: 9.066 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f126s2
  • Melting Point: 1802 K, 1529 °C, 2784 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3141 K, 2868 °C, 5194 °F

68
number

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Thulium

Tm
symbol

    Thulium

  • Atomic Weight: 168.934 g/mol
  • Density: 9.32 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f136s2
  • Melting Point: 1818 K, 1545 °C, 2813 °F
  • Boiling Point: 2223 K, 1950 °C, 3542 °F

69
number

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Ytterbium

Yb
symbol

    Ytterbium

  • Atomic Weight: 173.04 g/mol
  • Density: 6.90 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f146s2
  • Melting Point: 1097 K, 824 °C, 1515 °F
  • Boiling Point: 1469 K, 1196 °C, 2185 °F

70
number

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Lutetium

Lu
symbol

    Lutetium

  • Atomic Weight: 174.967 g/mol
  • Density: 9.841 g/cm3
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 6s24f145d1
  • Melting Point: 1925 K, 1652 °C, 3006 °F
  • Boiling Point: 3675 K, 3402 °C, 6156 °F

71 
number

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