Flat-surface, step-edge, facet-facet, and facet-step diffusion barriers in growth of a Pb mesa

TitleFlat-surface, step-edge, facet-facet, and facet-step diffusion barriers in growth of a Pb mesa
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsHan Y, Lu GH, Lee BJ, Liu F
Journal TitleSurface Science
Date PublishedJul
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0039-6028
Accession NumberISI:000257837500025
KeywordsEMBEDDED-ATOM-METHOD, impurities, kinetics, mechanism, modified embedded atom method, Pb mesa growth, pb/si(111), potentials, RELAXATIONS, SADDLE-POINTS, self-diffusion, surface diffusion barrier, surface free energy, temperature

We obtain important energy parameters for understanding growth kinetics of a faceted Pb mesa. Specifically, extensive calculations of diffusion barriers are performed for a Pb adatom: (i) on a flat Pb(111) or Pb(001) surface; (ii) crossing a single A- or B-step edge on Pb(111) surface; (iii) crossing a facet-facet edge between Pb(111) facet and Pb(001) facet, or between Pb(111) facet and Pb(11 (1) over bar) facet; (iv) crossing a facet-step joint between Pb(001) facet and A-step, or between Pb(11 (1) over bar) facet and B-step, using a modified embedded atom method. We investigate two different diffusion modes: direct hopping of an adatom, and exchange mechanism between an adatom and substrate atom(s). Direct hopping diffusion is more favorable over exchange mechanism for an adatom on a flat (111) or (001) surface. Diffusion crossing A-step edge favors direct hopping, while diffusion crossing B-step edge favors exchange mechanism. For facet-facet or facet-step diffusion, the exchange mechanism is always favorable over direct hopping. The diffusion barriers obtained here have been used to reasonably explain the intriguing kinetic growth of a Pb mesa in recent experiments. In addition, we also discuss low-index planes of Pb((1) over bar 10) crystallographic zone related to the choices of sidewalls in the formation of a Pb mesa by calculating corresponding surface free energies. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Alternate JournalSurf. Sci.