Magnetization and C-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation of nanodiamond powder

TitleMagnetization and C-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation of nanodiamond powder
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsLevin EM, Fang XW, Bud'ko SL, Straszheim WE, McCallum RW, Schmidt-Rohr K
Journal TitlePhysical Review B
Volume77
Pages054418
Date PublishedFeb
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1098-0121
Accession NumberISI:000253764000060
Keywordscarbon, defects, diamond, ferromagnetism, HECTORITE, METEORITE, particles, RESONANCE, susceptibility, system
Abstract

The bulk magnetization at temperatures of 1.8-400 K and in magnetic fields up to 70 kOe, the ambient temperature C-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation, T-1,T-C, and the elemental composition of three nanodiamond powder samples have been studied. The total magnetization of nanodiamond can be explained in terms of contributions from (1) the diamagnetic effect of carbon, (2) the paramagnetic effect of unpaired electrons present in nanodiamond grains, and (3) ferromagneticlike and (4) superparamagnetic contributions from Fe-containing particles detected in spatially resolved energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Contributions (1) and (2) are intrinsic to nanodiamond, while contributions (3) and (4) arise from impurities naturally present in detonation nanodiamond samples. C-13 NMR T-1,T-C relaxation would be unaffected by the presence of the ferromagnetic particles with the bulk magnetization of similar to 0.01 emu/g at 300 K. Thus, a reduction of T-1,T-C by 3 orders of magnitude compared to natural and synthetic microdiamonds confirms the presence of unpaired electrons in the nanodiamond grains. The spin concentration in nanodiamond powder corresponds to similar to 30 unpaired electrons per similar to 4.6 nm diameter nanodiamond grain.

DOI10.1103/PhysRevB.77.054418
Alternate JournalPhys. Rev. B