|Title||Reverse-engineering of graphene on metal surfaces: a case study of embedded ruthenium|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Lii-Rosales, A, Han, Y, Yu, KM, Jing, DP, Anderson, N, Vaknin, D, Tringides, MC, Evans, JW, Altman, MS, Thiel, PA|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||defects, dft, electronic-structure, epitaxial graphene, Graphite, graphite surfaces, growth, intercalation, intercalation compounds, Materials Science, moire, physics, ru, ru(0001), ruthenium, spectra, stm, superlattice, surface, Technology - Other Topics, vacancy|
graphene on the (0001) surface of bulk Ru. Quantitative analysis of the graphene lattice in relation to the coincidence lattice on the island tops show that the two-dimensional lattice constant of the underlying metal equals that of bulk Ru(0001), within experimental error. The embedded Ru islands are energetically favored over on-top (adsorbed) islands, based on density-functional-theory calculations for Ru films with 1-3 Ru layers. We propose a formation mechanism in which Ru atoms intercalate via defects that act as entry portals to the carbon galleries, followed by nucleation and growth in the galleries. In this model, high deposition temperature is necessary to prevent blockage of entry portals.
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