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Printed Graphene Electrochemical Biosensors Fabricated by Inkjet Maskless Lithography for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Organophosphates

TitlePrinted Graphene Electrochemical Biosensors Fabricated by Inkjet Maskless Lithography for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Organophosphates
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsHondred, JA, Breger, JC, Alves, NJ, Trammell, SA, Walper, SA, Medintz, IL, Caussen, JC
Journal Interfaces
Date Published04
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1944-8244
Accession NumberWOS:000429625400057
Keywordsamperometric detection, biosensor, carbon-paste electrode, electrochemical biosensor, exposure, farm-workers, Graphene, hydrolase, inkjet printing, Materials Science, microbial, nerve agents, paraoxon, pesticide, pesticides, phosphotriesterase, surface, Technology - Other Topics

Solution phase printing of graphene-based electrodes has recently become an attractive low-cost, scalable manufacturing technique to create in-field electrochemical biosensors. Here, we report a graphene-based electrode developed via inkjet maskless lithography (IML) for the direct and rapid monitoring of triple-O linked phosphonate organophosphates (OPs); these constitute the active compounds found in chemical warfare agents and pesticides that exhibit acute toxicity as well as long-term pollution to soils and waterways. The IML-printed graphene electrode is nano/microstructured with a 1000 mW benchtop laser engraver and electrochemically deposited platinum nanoparticles (dia. similar to 25 nm) to improve its electrical conductivity (sheet resistance decreased from similar to 10 000 to 100 Omega/sq), surface area, and electroactive nature for subsequent enzyme functionalization and biosensing. The enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) was conjugated to the electrode surface via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The resulting biosensor was able to rapidly measure (5 s response time) the insecticide paraoxon (a model OP) with a low detection limit (3 nM), and high sensitivity (370 nA/mu M) with negligible interference from similar nerve agents. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited high reusability (average of 0.3% decrease in sensitivity per sensing event), stability (90% anodic current signal retention over 1000 s), longevity (70% retained sensitivity after 8 weeks), and the ability to selectively sense OP in actual soil and water samples. Hence, this work presents a scalable printed graphene manufacturing technique that can be used to create OP biosensors that are suitable for in-field applications as well as, more generally, for low-cost biosensor test strips that could be incorporated into wearable or disposable sensing paradigms.

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