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Practical Aspects of Modern and Future Permanent Magnets

TitlePractical Aspects of Modern and Future Permanent Magnets
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMcCallum, RW, Lewis, LH, Skomski, R, Kramer, MJ, Anderson, IE
JournalAnnual Review of Materials Research, Vol 44
Date Published07
Type of ArticleReview; Book Chapter
ISBN Number1531-7331
Accession NumberWOS:000348451900004
Keywordsalloys, alnico, anisotropy, cobalt, compound, energy product, fe, ferrite, Intermetallic compounds, iron particles, Magnetic anisotropy, mn-al-c, nitrides, rare earth magnets, tau-phase

The mandate to reduce greenhouse gases will require highly efficient electric machines for both power generation and traction motor applications. Although permanent magnet electric machines utilizing Nd2Fe14B-based magnets provide obvious power-to-weight advantages over induction machines, the limited availability and high price of the rare earth (RE) metals make these machines less favorable. Of particular concern is the cost and supply criticality of Dy, a key RE element that is required to improve the high-temperature performance of Nd-based magnetic alloys for use in generators and traction motors. Alternatives to RE-based alloys do exist, but they currently lack the energy density necessary to replace Nd-based magnets. Many of these compounds have been known for decades, but serious interest in their development waned once compounds based on RE elements were discovered. In this review, intrinsic and extrinsic materials factors that impact the optimization of both existing and potential future permanent magnets for energy applications are examined in light of new insights gained from renewed examination.

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