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Determining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper

TitleDetermining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsAppy, D, Lei, HP, Han, Y, Wang, CZ, Tringides, MC, Shao, DH, Kwolek, EJ, Evans, JW, Thiel, PA
JournalPhysical Review B
Volume90
Pagination195406
Date Published11
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1098-0121
Accession NumberWOS:000345170900006
Keywordsdensity, deposition, energy, growth, hopg, morphology, oriented pyrolytic-graphite, particles, plane, surface-defects
Abstract

We observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.

DOI10.1103/PhysRevB.90.195406
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Surface Structures

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