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Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 5-7 permanent magnets

TitleCluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 5-7 permanent magnets
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsNguyen, MC, Zhao, X, Wang, CZ, Ho, KM
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume117
Pagination093905
Date Published03
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0021-8979
Accession NumberWOS:000351134400011
Keywordsaugmented-wave method, phase
Abstract

The concerns about the supply and resource of rare earth (RE) metals have generated a lot of interests in searching for high performance RE-free permanent magnets. Alnico alloys are traditional non-RE permanent magnets and have received much attention recently due their good performance at high temperature. In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient cluster expansion energy model for alnico 5-7. Monte Carlo simulations using the cluster expansion method are performed to investigate the structure of alnico 5-7 at atomistic and nano scales. The alnico 5-7 master alloy is found to decompose into FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases at low temperature. The boundary between these two phases is quite sharp (similar to 2 nm) for a wide range of temperature. The compositions of the main constituents in these two phases become higher when the temperature gets lower. Both FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases are in B2 ordering with Fe and Al on alpha-site and Ni and Co on beta-site. The degree of order of the NiAl-rich phase is much higher than that of the FeCo-rich phase. A small magnetic moment is also observed in NiAl-rich phase but the moment reduces as the temperature is lowered, implying that the magnetic properties of alnico 5-7 could be improved by lowering annealing temperature to diminish the magnetism in NiAl-rich phase. The results from our Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental results. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

DOI10.1063/1.4914036
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