Thanks to the innovation of “single particle orientation and rotation tracking” (SPORT), we now can watch the distinctive movements of drug delivering nanoparticles in real time. Nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize drug delivery. When these particles interact with cell membranes they move in all sorts of ways. They spin, they tumble, they move along and through the membrane. At least that’s what we think. But what’s really going on? Until now, we could track how these nanoparticles rotated only by taking a series of still photographs making studies of fast rotations beyo
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Researchers have used pressure as a tool to study the magnetic behavior of a challenging series of materials, RVSb3, where R is a rare-earth. This series offers a way to study magnetic ordering in materials with a single, unique rare-earth site and it has been studied primarily as a function of temperature. CeVSb3 is the only compound in the family that orders ferromagnetically, that is with all its unpaired electron spins parallel, at low temperatures.
Using computer simulations, researchers are able to watch how a random mixture of gold nanoparticles with two different DNA strands as linkers assemble right on their computer screen. The magic starts with just a fraction of the nanoparticles forming a large cluster like a plate of spaghetti and meatballs. Within this random cluster, small ordered regions form and eventually lock together into a large uniform array of particles held together with DNA strands. Using computer simulations they also predict previously unseen structures.
Iron and copper are both magnetic, but only iron sticks to your refrigerator. That’s because iron is ferromagnetic at room temperature, while copper is paramagnetic. For a material to have two types of magnetism simultaneously at one temperature is uncommon. To have three types simultaneously is exceedingly rare. The alloy NbFe2 is one of those rare materials: at low temperatures it is ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic.But why?
Researchers working to understand high temperature superconductivity in barium-iron-arsenide have discovered that applying pressure affects the material's magnetic and superconducting behavior just as if they had replaced some iron with a little ruthenium. To better quantify and understand the similarities of changing pressure versus ruthenium concentration, they made Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 with varying amounts (x) of ruthenium and studied each concentration as a function of pressure and temperature.
Liquids and glasses are often described as having “disordered” structures, but new methods are showing that there are some significant patterns hidden in the seemingly random arrangements of atoms. When applied to a glassy copper–zirconium alloy, “order mining” has revealed an unexpected similarity between metallic glasses and quasicrystals, among other novel features.
Making superconducting nanocircuits with rounded internal corners will significantly improve performance.Scientists showed this by calculating how circuit geometry impacts current flow. The key is how geometry affects “current crowding”. Crowding can happen when electrical current travels around a sharp corner or hairpin turn much like cars racing on a tight track. The current (like cars) tends to concentrate near the inner edges of sharp turns.
Locating a catalyst and reactants in confined spaces makes catalytic reactions go faster in the desired direction. Of course, the reaction products have to be removed from the confined spaces and researchers have developed a new approach to expelling aqueous reaction products. This works for confinement in nanometer-sized pores in silica particles. By lining the insides of the pores with both catalysts and a fluorinated chemical, like that found in Teflon®, reactions with water as a byproduct proceed much faster. This works because certain chemicals just don’t like each other.
A new group of bacteria has been discovered in Death Valley’s Badwater Basin that makes nanoparticles of both magnetite (Fe3O4) and greigite (Fe3S4). Magnetotactic bacteria use these tiny magnets as part of their navigation system to align themselves along the Earth’s magnetic field. Typical magnetotactic bacteria do not make both magnetite and greigite and the discovery dispels the notion that greigite-producing bacteria live only in marine environments.
Substituting ruthenium for iron in iron-based superconductors tunes their properties in a very unusual way. The substitution of one element for another normally changes the crystal’s electronic structure and induces superconductivity by adding charge carriers and/or altering the size of the crystal lattice. High resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments showed neither mechanism is responsible in the case of barium–iron–ruthenium–arsenide, Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2.