From DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:
Affordable lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized the world by powering our mobile electronics and with the potential of electric vehicles, demand for batteries is expected to rapidly grow. As we look to the opportunity of domestic battery manufacturing as this market grows, one challenge for the United States is that the United States is not a large producer of minerals such as lithium, manganese, cobalt, or graphite—all important components of today’s lithium-ion batteries.
The United States is import-reliant (imports are greater than 50 percent of annual consumption) for 31 of the 35 minerals designated as critical by the Department of the Interior. For 14 critical minerals, The U.S. has no domestic production and relies completely on imports.
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