Replacing Critical Rare Earth Materials in High Energy Density Magnets

Why use Cerium (Ce)?

  • Cerium is not in short supply!
    • Abundance of Ce is 4 times Nd and Pr combined
      • About 50% of the RE content of Molycorp's Bastnasite
  • Excess of Ce on the market
    • Ce-TM based permanent magnet
      • 2 to 3 increase of high-energy RE magnets supply
      • No increase in mining or RE metal production
Historically, why not Ce?
  • In known RE-Transition Metal (TM) magnetic systems (versus those containing Nd and/or Pr)
    • 25% drop in Curie temperature (Tc)
    • Signigicant reduction in saturation magnetization (Ms)
    • Ce is more 4+ than 3+ (mixed-valency)
      • Little 4f contribution to magnetocrystalline anisotropy
      • Low coercivity (Hc)