The goal of this project is to learn to control the flow of light and the conversion of light energy into other forms of energy (and vice versa). This project is fundamental physics research that supports the mission of DOE in the areas of energy-efficient lighting, efficient solar energy utilization, and thermophotovoltaics. Research in this Project can be grouped into two sub-tasks.
Photonic Crystal Physics
Photonic band gap materials are artificially designed periodic dielectric or metallic structures with high refractive-index contrast that can be used to control light (photons) in a manner similar to that used by semiconductors to control electrons. Although this research project originated from theoretical work, its emphasis now is on physical manifestations and tests of the theory. Over the next three years research goals within this subtask will focus on:
- Wide area fabrication of photonic crystal and polymer waveguide structures using reasonable-cost soft lithography techniques (K. Constant, W. Leung, K.-M. Ho).
- Study of fundamental photonic crystal properties including tailored thermal emission, beam steering and focusing (R. Biswas, K. Constant, C. Soukoulis, W. Leung, K.-M. Ho).
- Development of highly efficient algorithms for design and study of devices using photonic crystals. Extension of techniques to study non-linear systems or systems with gain as well as the effects of disorder/fabrication defects on the performance of photonic crystal structures. (C. Soukoulis, K.-M. Ho)
Organic Semiconductor Physics
The goal of this subtask is to provide the fundamental physics underpinning necessary to understand and optimize the performance of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) at both low and high brightness. More specifically, the goal is to elucidate the interactions (particularly the spin-dependent interactions) between singlet excitons (SEs), triplet excitons (TEs), polarons, bipolarons, and trions, as they impact the optical and transport properties of these materials and devices. For example, our past experimental work has revealed the central role of TEs and polarons in quenching the SEs, thus decreasing the photoluminescence quantum yield of the films and the internal quantum efficiency of OLEDs. Indeed, these quenching processes are now recognized as the source of the decreasing efficiency of OLEDs at high injection current.
Over the next three years research within this subtask will focus on fundamental studies on novel OLED structures, including n-stacked (tandem) OLEDs, graded junction OLEDs, and hybrid polymer/small molecular OLEDs. (J. Shinar).
Biswas R; Xu C . 2011. Nano-crystalline silicon solar cell architecture with absorption at the classical 4n(2) limit. Optics Express. 19:A664-A672.
Alici K B; Turhan A B; Soukoulis C M; Ozbay E . 2011. Optically thin composite resonant absorber at the near-infrared band: a polarization independent and spectrally broadband configuration. Optics Express. 19:14260-14267.
Park J M; Gan Z Q; Leung W Y; Liu R; Ye Z; Constant K; Shinar J; Shinar R; Ho K M . 2011. Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction. Optics Express. 19:A786-A792.
Foteinopoulou S; Kafesaki M; Economou E N; Soukoulis C M . 2011. Two-dimensional polaritonic photonic crystals as terahertz uniaxial metamaterials. Physical Review B. 84:035128.
Kuang P; Park J M; Leung W; Mahadevapuram R C; Nalwa K S; Kim T G; Chaudhary S; Ho K M; Constant K . 2011. A New Architecture for Transparent Electrodes: Relieving the Trade-Off Between Electrical Conductivity and Optical Transmittance. Advanced Materials. 23:2469-2473.
Liu R; Gan Z Q; Shinar R; Shinar J . 2011. Transient electroluminescence spikes in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes. Physical Review B. 83:245302.
Chen Ying; Cai Min; Hellerich Emily; Liu Rui; Gan Zhengqing; Shinar Joseph; Shinar Ruth . 2011. Evidence for Holes beyond the Recombination Zone and Trions in the Electron Transport Layer of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. Journal of Photonics for Energy. 1:01107.
Mao D P; Li M; Leung W Y; Ho K M; Dong L A . 2011. Photonic-plasmonic integration through the fusion of photonic crystal cavity and metallic structure. Journal of Nanophotonics. 5:059501.
Lee J; Ye Z; Ho K M; Kim J . 2011. Two-dimensional optofluidic liquid-core waveguiding based on optimized integration of single- and multiple-layer antiresonance reflection optical waveguides. Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics. 28:489-494.