Inverted polymer solar cells with a solution-processed cesium halide interlayer

TitleInverted polymer solar cells with a solution-processed cesium halide interlayer
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsXiao T, Cui WP, Cai M, Leung W, Anderegg JW, Shinar J, Shinar R
Journal TitleOrganic Electronics
Volume14
Pages267-272
Date Published01
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1566-1199
Accession NumberWOS:000313686200038
Keywordsaggregates, blends, Cesium iodide (CsI) interlayer, CsCl interlayers, CsF or, EFFICIENCY, Inverted organic solar cells, Molybdenum oxide interlayer, open-circuit voltage, P3HT structured
Abstract

We demonstrate the utility of a low-cost cesium iodide interlayer spun from an aqueous or 2-ethoxyethanol solution on ITO in inverted polymer solar cells of the structure ITO/CsI/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Al, where P3HT is poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM is [6,6]-phenyl-C-60-butyric acid methyl ester. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of optimized cells was similar to 3.4%, comparable to that we obtained for inverted cells with Cs carbonate. The thickness of the CsI film was adjusted by varying the solution concentration. The concentration affected the surface morphology of P3HT:PCBM and the density of fractal-like aggregates (possibly related to the presence of Cs and film fabrication conditions) formed near the anode, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Auger analysis indicated a P3HT-rich surface. Optimization of the cells was achieved also by varying the thickness of the MoO3 and the drying/annealing conditions of the active layer, as was evident from the current-voltage characteristics, external quantum efficiency spectra, and PCE. The cells with the CsI interlayer were compared additionally to cells with CsCl or CsF interlayers (with a PCE of up to similar to 2.7%), which were inferior to the comparable cells with Cs2CO3 or CsI. The surface concentrations of Cs and the halide on ITO were monitored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The iodine level was low with the Cs:I ratio exceeding 8:1. In contrast, the Cs:Cl ratio was similar to 1.4:1 and the Cs:F ratio was similar to 1:1; the Cs2CO3 decomposed partially, as expected. Therefore, for CsI, as is the case for Cs2CO3 but not for CsF, Cs-O bonds are formed at the surface. Such bonds on ITO are important in modifying the ITO work function, improving the cell performance. The results indicate that spin coating solutions of the high polarity CsI is a promising and easy approach to introduce Cs-O on ITO in inverted structures for increased electron extraction from PCBM and possibly hole extraction from the P3HT-rich surface at the anode. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

URL<Go to ISI>://WOS:000313686200038
DOI10.1016/j.orgel.2012.10.020