Development of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-X alloys for Pb-free electronic solder applications

TitleDevelopment of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-X alloys for Pb-free electronic solder applications
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsAnderson IE
Journal TitleJournal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics
Volume18
Pages55-76
Date PublishedMar
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0957-4522
Accession NumberISI:000242853600005
KeywordsAG3SN PLATE FORMATION, AU/NI SURFACE FINISH, copper, EUTECTIC SOLDER, INTERFACIAL REACTIONS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND, JOINTS, LEAD-FREE SOLDERS, microstructure, temperature
Abstract

The global electronic assembly community is striving to accommodate the replacement of Pb-containing solders, primarily Sn-Pb alloys, with Pb-free solders due to environmental regulations and market pressures. Of the Pb-free choices, a family of solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic (T-eut. = 217 degrees C) composition have emerged with the most potential for broad use across the industry, but the preferred (typically near-eutectic) composition is still in debate. This review will attempt to clarify the characteristic microstructures and mechanical properties of the current candidates and recommend alloy choices, a maximum operating temperature limit, and directions for future work. Also included in this review will be an exploration of several SAC + X candidates, i.e., 4th element modifications of SAC solder alloys, that are intended to control solder alloy undercooling and solidification product phases and to improve the resistance of SAC solder joints to high temperature thermal aging effects. Again, preliminary alloy recommendations will be offered, along with suggestions for future work.

DOI10.1007/s10854-006-9011-9
Alternate JournalJ. Mater. Sci.-Mater. Electron.